The Psalms are divided into five books, corresponding to the five books of Moses, as follows:

1 - 41 Genesis

42 - 72 Exodus

73 - 89 Leviticus

90 - 106 Numbers

107 - 150 Deuteronomy

[Bull. Appendix 63]

Psalm 8:5 "angels"= Heb. elohim "God" God made man a little lower than Himself.

Psalm 9:13 "gates of death" Contrast with “gates of the daughter of Zion” in the next verse.

Psalm 9:14 "gates of the daughter of Zion" dual genitive See Psa. 20:1 for the next one. Contrast of life and death.

Psalm 10:18 "man of the earth" Only here.

Psalm 11:7 "the righteous Lord" Heb. tsadiq yhvh. First of four occurrences: Psa 145:17 Dan 9:14 2Chron 12:6. Compare 2Tim 4:8 “the Lord, the righteous judge” and Rev 16:5 “Thou art righteous, O Lord” and Rev 16:7 “Lord God Almighty, true and righteous are thy judgments”.

Psalm 12:2 "double heart" Heb. "heart and heart". Only here and 1Chronicles 12:33.

Psalm 18:33 "hind"=deer. FFB,20 AzAl,70-71/

Psalm 19:1
"heavens declare" Heb. saphar. Piel form means "declare", but Qal participle translated as "scribe". Note the number of literary references in verses 1-6.

Compare Psa. 97:6, but with Heb. nagad.
"sheweth" Heb. nagad. "tell, show"
"glory of God" Heb. kebud el Only here in OT. Similar wording in Pro. 25:2. "glory of the God of Israel" occurs five times in Ezekiel. Phrase does not appear again until John 11, in context of the raising of Lazarus.

Psalm 19:2
"day unto day" Only here in OT. Only Greek parallel is 2 Cor. 4:16 "day by day" the inner man is renewed.
"uttereth" Heb. naba' "pour forth, utter, declare"
"night unto night" Only here in Hebrew.
“sheweth” Heb. chavah “show forth, tell, declare”

Psalm 19:3
"speech, language, voice" Characteristic literary terms in verses 1-6.

Psalm 19:4
"line" Literary term. Compare Isa 28:10,13.
"in them" Same phrase in verse 11.

Psalm 19:6
"nothing hid from the heat thereof" Only here. See usage of "sun" in 2Sam. 12:12.

Psalm 19:7
Unique list of six titles, attributes and effects of the Word of God.
"converting the soul" Note similar phrases in Ruth 4:15, Lam. 1:16.
"converting" Used of the sun in Isa. 38:8
"sure"=faithful, enduring. Used of the sun in Psa. 89:37.

Psalm 19:8
"statutes of the Lord are right" "right"=true. Similar wording in Psa. 119:128.
"rejoicing the heart" Compare similar wording: 1Chr. 16:10; Psa. 33:21, 104:15, 105:3; Pro. 15:30, 23:15, 27:9.
"enlightening" Verb in Gen. 1:15,17 of sun and moon.

Psalm 19:9
"judgments of the Lord are right" Phrase "true judgment" with these words occurs Eze. 18:8, Zec. 7:9.
“enduring” Joshua 10:13, the sun and moon “stayed”.

Psalm 19:11
"warned" Same word in Dan 12:3 as "shine", of the "firmament".
“keeping” Compare Psa 130:6 “watch for the morning”

Psalm 19:12
"errors" This noun only here. From shagah, "to wander". But the LXX word is paraptomata not, planes.
"cleanse" Heb. naqah, Piel conj. "clear" Compare other occurrences of this conjugation: All occ.: Ex. 20:7,34:7; Num. 14:18; Deu. 5:11; 1Ki 2:9; Job 9:28,10:14; Psa. 19:13; Jer. 30:11,46:28; Nah 1:3
Only here does the Psalmist ask for clearing.
"secret faults" Same word as "hid" in verse 6.

Psalm 19:14
Bull.: The psalm opens with the Creator and closes with the Redeemer. Compare with Rev. 4:11, 5:9.

Psalm 20:1 "name of the God of Jacob" dual genitive See Psa. 23:4 for the next one. Contrast “trouble” and “defend”.

Psalm 23:3
"paths of righteousness" Only here.

Psalm 27:1 See Gen 12:3.

Psalm 31:12 East. "broken vessel" Slight cracks prevent use - good only to store
refuse. [Pillai #773]

Psalm 32:1
First of the "Maskil" psalms (for understanding or instruction). The word is from Heb. sakal, "to look at, scrutinize, to look well into anything". The LXX uses sunesis and eis sunesin. The word found in the superscription of 13 Psalms, and is distributed across the five Psalms sections according to author as follows:


  Gen (1-41) Exo (42-72) Lev (73-89) Num (90-106) Deu (107-150)
David 32 52 53 54 55     142
Sons of Korah   42 44 45      
Asaph     74 78    
Henan the Ezrahite     88    
Ethan the Ezrahite     89    

Psalm 34:18 "broken heart" First occ. of this expression. See Psalm 51:17, 69:20, 147:3, Isaiah 61:1, Jeremiah 23:9. Also see Ezekiel 6:9, Luke 4:18.

Psalm 37:35 East. “green bay tree” Not a species of tree, but a tree growing
quickly in its own ground. It grows quickly but does not endure. [Pillai #716]

Psalm 40:6 East. “mine ears hast thou opened” Ear lobe pierced by a red hot
needle; marks as a son of God. [Pillai #720]

Psalm 41:4 "heal my soul" Heb. rphah nephshi Only here.

Psalm 42:2 See Gen 33:10.

Psalm 42:7 East. “deep calleth unto deep” Trouble follows trouble quickly.
"waves"=affliction. [Pillai #769]

Psalm 45:7 “God, Thy God” Heb. elohim eloheka Only here and Psa. 50:7. Quoted in Heb. 1:9 and referred to in Mark 12:36, Luke 20:42.

Psalm 45:13 East. “glorious within” Inside the vail. [Pillai #734]

Psalm 48:2 "situation" Heb. nof = climate. "The Uniqueness of the Jerusalem
Climate" P. Alpert, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, v. 72,
No. 2, Feb. 1991. Jerusalem is unique among some 70 cities around the world in
that it has the highest annual sunshine with the highest normal rainfall.

Psalm 49:8 "ceaseth for ever"=it is forever unachievable. Gins.

Psalm 51:10 "create" Only here in the imperative.

Psalm 51:11 "holy spirit" Heb. ruach qodesh. Here, Isaiah 63:10,11

Psalm 58:5 “which will not hearken to the voice of charmers” East. Some snakes
will not even respond to a charmer. So are these wicked. [Pillai #748 ]

Psalm 58:8 East. "snail"=wax "untimely"=stillborn [Pillai #748]

Psalm 58:9 East. “thorns” Thorns are put for the poor kindling and slow heat they
provide. [Pillai #748]

Psalm 66:20 "Blessed be God" Heb. baruk elohim Here, Psa 68:35 in OT, and 2Co 1:3 in NT.

Psalm 68:17 "chariots of God" Only occ.

Psalm 68:26 "fountain of Israel" Only here. See 2Sa 21:17.

Psalm 68:35 "Blessed be God" See 66:20.

Psalm 69:22 East. “table become a snare” Covenants made at meals. If a conspiracy,
a witness can inform the victim, setting a 'trap' for the plotters. [Pillai #705]

Psalm 77:6 "song in the night" Only here and Job 35:10, but with different Hebrew word.

Psalm 77:10 "the years of the right hand of the Most High" This combination of words only here.

Psalm 81:10 East. "open thy mouth wide"=ask great things of God. [Pillai #709]

Psalm 83:13 East. "wheel"=whirlwind; blown away and can't be found. [Pillai #709]

Psalm 84:10 East. "tents of wickedness"=rich and sinful people. [Pillai #709]

Psalm 84:11 "grace and glory". Only here and Proverbs 11:16 with the Heb. words chen and kabad. The English word "glory" in Proverbs 4:9 is the Heb. tiphereth, and is the only combination of that word with "grace" Heb. chen in the OT.

Psalm 85:11 "truth shall spring out of the earth" Compare Isa 45:8.

Psalm 86:11 "unite" Heb. yachad Only here in imperative, Piel conjugation. Other ancient versions read “let my heart rejoice”.

Psalm 86:12 "all my heart" Heb. bkal lebabiy Only here.

Psalm 90:10 "by reason of strength" Heb. bigburoth Only here and Psa 147:10.

Psalm 92:12 East. “palm tree” Different palms: date, banana, coconut. The palm
tree has no counterpart in the West. It flourishes year round: Jan-Mar: they
break they fruit for milk; 2nd quarter - break and eat the meat (like
coconut); 3rd quarter - peel and eat like an apple; 4th quarter - eat like a
plum. The more eaten from this tree, the more it produces. Its leaves are used
for roofing and writing material. Leaves are soaked until they turn white.
Writing on them with an iron pen turns the marks green. Insect and rot do not
attack it. Temple records are kept on palm leaves. Palm trees are not
cultivated, but "planted by God." They are not uprooted in storms and do not
die unless cut down. [Pillai #704]

Psalm 102:7 East. “sparrow” When afflicted, sparrows wait alone on housetops away
form people and danger, until the problem is corrected. [Pillai #770]

Psalm 103:3 "iniquities"=sins. "all [without exception] thy diseases"

Psalm 103:10 Fig. exergasia The same expression stated in two
different ways which establishes the truth as unchangeable. See doubling in Gen 41:32.

Psalm 103:13 Fig. simile "as a father pitieth his children" “so the LORD pitieth them that fear him”

Psalm 104:5 "laid the foundations of the earth" Only here in OT. Compare Hebrews 1:10.

Psalm 106:37 "devils" Heb. sadim Only here and Deu 32:17.

Psalm 106:28 East. “sacrifices of the dead” The remaining food in the home of the
deceased is buried with him. Scavengers will eat this food. [Pillai #750]

Psalm 115:15 “made heaven and earth” Heb. ‘asah shamayim verets First of five occurrences: Psa 115:15 121:2 124:8 134:3 146:6. Three of these five in the “psalms of the degrees”.

Psalm 119 Bull. appendix 73: Each verse in this psalm contains one of the “ten words”: “way” Heb. derek “testimony” eduth “precepts” piqqudim “commandment” mitsvah “word” imrah “law” torah “judgment” mishpat “righteousness” tsedek “statute” choq “word” dabar. The sole exception according to the Massoritic rubric quoted by Bullinger is verse 122. However, see verse 90.

Psalm 119:83 East. “bottle in the smoke” Among the poor, mud huts make houses.
They have only a low door, with family and animals in the same room. Ovens
are made of stone or mud. Too poor to burn wood, so they burn grass. No change
of clothes among the poor. [Pillai #721]

Psalm 119:90 This verse does not have one of the "ten words." The Hebrew word is translated "faithfulness." But some contexts translate the root emunah as "truth"
which is parallel to dabar. See Psa 119:30 Proverbs 12:17 Isaiah 59:4. The 1937 BH
lists the conjectural reading imrah, which is taken to be a verb parallel to dabar. An advantage of this reading is that imrah is one of the ten words.

Psalm 121:5 "shade" See Exodus 33:23.

Psalm 121:6 East. “sun, moon” Easterners sleep with the face covered to keep
moonlight out of the eyes. [Pillai #730]

Psalm 122:6 "pray for the peace" Phrase occurs only here in KJV.

Psalm 123:2 East. “eyes of servants” Summoning of servants done by hand gestures.
[Pillai #705]
"our eyes wait upon the LORD our God" First mention of eyes upon God. Passages before here prayed God to look down from heaven. See Isa. 45:22.

Psalm 126:5 East. “sow in tears” Weeping from the loss of seed due to exorbitant
interest rates of landowner. [Pillai #705]

Psalm 127:5 East. “quiver” Children of youthful (16-18 years) parents were
considered more virile, and able to protect parents better. [Pillai #773]

Psalm 128:3 East. “they wife shall be as a fruitful vine; Thy children like olive
plants” Thy wife: Beautiful and graceful as the presence of God. Thy children
a support in old age. [Pillai # 705]

Psalm 129:3 East. Persecution by enemies with a long time in distress. [Pillai #702]

Psalm 133:1 East. “how good and how pleasant” Women massaged on Friday. Men
massaged on Saturday. Illustrates the relaxation found in the customary
Eastern oil bath.

Psalm 133:3 East. “skirts” Underwear worn during the massage.

Psalm 141:5 East. "excellent oil" Refers to healing qualities. [Pillai #750]

Psalm 146:7 "executeth judgment for the oppressed" Compare the following actions of the Lord with Isaiah 61:1 and Luke 4:18.

Psalm 147:3 "broken", "heart", "bindeth" These three words in one verse only here and Isaiah 61:1.

Psalm 147:18 "word", "wind", "blow" Wind is Heb. ruach. These three words appear together only here.

Psalm 149:4 "For the Lord taketh pleasure in His People" Only such statement in the OT. Compare Eph 1:5. The words “pleasure” and “people” appear together in Jer 14:10 and Eze 20:41.